迁安市人民政?/title> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/css/style.css"> <meta http-equiv="Cache-Control" content="no-transform" /> <script>var V_PATH="/";window.onerror=function(){ return true; };</script> </head><body class="bOwiD" id="zVA1q"><h1><a href="http://bandavolk.com/">ϲƽ̨</a></h1><a class="logo"><img src="http://www.bandavolk.com/logo.png" alt="万喜堂_万喜堂平台|网址"></a> <div class="container"> <div class="content" style="padding-top:10px;"> <div class="crumb-box"> <span><a href='/index.html' >首页</a> > <a href='/zt.html'>专题</a> > 社会主义核心价值观</span> </div> <div class="condetail-box"> <div class="t-box"> <h1>人民日报:立足自身实践完善发展中国政治学</h1> <h2></h2> <div class="p">发布时间?018-12-13    来源:政府办公室    浏览次数?span class="num"></span> <div class="share-box fr"> <div class="info-bottom"> <div class="bshare-custom"><div class="bsPromo bsPromo2"></div> <div class="bsPromo bsPromo2"> <span>分享到:<img class="fr" src="/images/public/share.png" /></span> </div> </div> </div> </div> <span class="fr"><!--【字体:<a id="big" href="javascript:;" onclick="changefs('20',this);">?/a> <a id="middle" href="javascript:;" class="active" onclick="changefs('16',this);">?/a> <a id="small" href="javascript:;" onclick="changefs('14',this);">?/a>?-><a class="print" onclick="window.print();" style="cursor:pointer">打印</a></span> </div> </div> <div class="detail-box mb30" style="font-size:16px;" id="zoom"> <p><div><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">内容提要:伴随着改革开放进程,中国政治学恢复重建并得到长足发展。面对我国改革发展中政治领域的相关问题,政治学者着力进行自主研究,探索构建自己的学科体系、学术体系和话语体系。推进国家治理现代化目标提出后,政治学者展开多层次多角度研究,立足于提升治理实效,在政府治理、社会治理、乡村治理等方面产出不少有分量的研究成果。当前,我们需要整合自己的优势资源,运用多种研究方法,拓展政治学创新发展的思路,为完善和发展中国特色社会主义政治制度贡献智慧?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">万喜堂平台   </p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  中国政治学自上世?0年代恢复重建以来,通过学习借鉴和自主研究,学科体系、学术体系、话语体系逐步建立和发展起来。改革开?0年来,中国政治学直面我国改革发展实践中的重大问题,围绕国家治理展开多层次、多角度研究,不断推进知识创新、理论创新、方法创新,为推进国家治理现代化、完善发展中国特色社会主义制度贡献智慧和力量?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  探索构建自己的理论体?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  改革开放开启了我国社会主义现代化建设新篇章。从上世?0年代起,包括政治学在内的中国哲学社会科学的各个学科,对现代化理论展开积极的研究探索?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  中国政治学开始搭建自己的理论框架,并尝试对改革开放后政治领域中的相关问题进行理论研究。研究对象主要包括民主政治、一国两制、政府职能、干部制度等等,政治学的作用和价值逐渐显现出来,并得到各方面认可?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  在学科重建之初,由于自身的知识积累和学术创造能力较为薄弱,大量西方理论成果被翻译、介绍到国内,这对于当时中国政治学的发展来说是必要的。但应看到,社会科学是特定国家或地区在一定历史阶段对特定领域经验的理论化总结,在本质上是一种地方性知识,如果用一种地方性知识指导另一个地方的发展,其结果往往会水土不服。因此,从上世纪90年代起,在引介西方政治学成果的同时,中国政治学界也开始反思、批判西方政治学的学术逻辑和话语体系,并基本达成了这样的共识:中国政治学需要建构自主性的学科体系、学术体系和话语体系?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  在这一共识下,中国政治学研究者不断进行钻研、探索,在关键概念上逐步建构起自主话语体系。比如对于民主观念,学者们重新进行思考,认识到西方自由主义民主理论产生于特定历史时期,从根本上看是西方国家为了维护自己、否定对手建构起来的,这种具有否定性特征的政治理论只能适用于特定范围。民主运行的社会条件比民主本身更重要,考察民主不仅要看民主的形式,更要注重民主的实际运行效果。一个国家以什么样的思路来谋划和推进民主政治建设,应坚持从国情出发、从实际出发,还要把握长期形成的历史传承、文化传统,着眼于解决现实问题。如果一味照搬他国的民主政治理论,不仅无法解决本国的问题,甚至可能把国家的前途命运葬送掉?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  创新是哲学社会科学的永恒主题。扎根于中国历史文化传统和经济社会发展现实基础,中国政治学界积极寻求具有建设性特征的政治理论,以替代西方政治学这一具有否定性特征的理论,其中一个重大创新就是提出并发展了协商民主理论。我国历史上就有协商文化传统,如今又有普遍存在的协商民主实践。协商民主是一种共识型民主,即在重大决策之前进行充分协商、尽可能找到各方面意愿和要求的最大公约数。它能够克服西方自由主义民主模式下党派和利益集团相互竞争、相互倾轧的弊端,是真实提升治理绩效的民主,具有强大生命力。中国政治学者吸收传统协商文化智慧,总结协商民主实践经验,建立并完善协商民主理论。这说明,我们已经从思维方式上跳出了西方自由主义民主理论的窠臼,在话语上对我国社会主义民主政治作出了自己的表述?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  围绕治理展开多层次研?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  在治理这一关键概念上,中国政治学界提出了自己的理解。治理并非西方当代政治理论和管理理论的专利,中国历来有经世致用的传统,历朝历代在国家治理方面都积累了经验和智慧。今天我们推进国家治理现代化需要汲取传统治理思想的智慧,还要立足现实国情和时代变化,致力于使我们的制度更加成熟更加定型,使各方面体制机制更加科学和完善。在我国进行社会主义现代化建设没有现成经验可以借鉴,不能简单套用西方以个人主义为脉络的治理理论来解释我国的国家治理。按照我国政治学者对治理的理解,治理是社会主义国家政治统治与政治管理的有机结合,治理的目的是确保国家安全和秩序稳定、提升发展效率、促进公平正义,因而更加强调治理的实际效果?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  党的十八届三中全会提出,全面深化改革的总目标是完善和发展中国特色社会主义制度,推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化。中国政治学界围绕国家治理现代化这个主题开展了多层次、多角度研究,产出不少有分量的研究成果?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  政府治理研究。国家治理的核心是政府治理,政府治理的内容主要包括政府自身结构的合理性、职能的转变与优化、决策的科学化等。围绕这些内容,中国政治学界对服务型政府的性质、定位、功能等进行研究,提出创新行政管理方式、增强政府公信力和执行力的对策措施;通过分析案例研究决策过程,分析决策机制,提出优化决策流程环节、提升决策科学化民主化水平的建议;研究政府的机构设置和职能配置,围绕建设职能科学、权责法定、执法严明、公开公正、廉洁高效、守法诚信的法治政府提出有针对性的建议?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  社会治理研究。社会治理是国家治理的重要领域。当前,我国社会结构正在发生深刻变化,社会矛盾多元多发,政治学者聚焦社会治理中的重要话题进行分析。比如,研究基层协商民主。通过分析社区、乡村的各种协商议事形式、结构、效果等,探索如何完善基层协商民主的协调联动机制、工作机制,如何畅通协商议事渠道、提升协商效果等。再如,研究党和政府在社会治理中的角色、职能。我国社会治理格局是党委领导、政府负责、社会协同、公众参与、法治保障,这就需要研究如何提升党对社会治理的领导能力,如何发挥好各级政府的公共服务、公共管理、公共安全职能等?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  乡村治理研究。上世纪90年代初兴起的农村问题研究,使中国政治学研究视野得到拓展,基层群众自治制度成为一个重要研究对象。随着乡村振兴战略的提出,健全自治、法治、德治相结合的乡村治理体系成为政治学界关注的问题。完善农村民主选举、民主协商、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督的制度和程序,创新村民议事形式,更好落实群众知情权、参与权、表达权、监督权,这些问题都需要政治学进行相关研究,发挥理论支持作用?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  借鉴多种研究方法进行创新</p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  40年来,中国政治学的成就和作用有目共睹。然而,当下中国政治学研究还存在不少短板和问题,与中国特色社会主义民主政治建设的需要相比还有较大差距。在创新发展政治学方面,我们拥有自己的丰富资源,包括马克思主义的科学指导、中国政治思想史和政治制度史的丰厚底蕴、巨大的制度优势和治理成就、借鉴人类一切优秀文明成果的开放心态,等等。当下需要做的,就是整合这些资源,运用多种研究方法,拓展政治学创新发展的思路?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  借鉴历史社会学的研究方法。历史社会学这一学派的研究者认为,社会科学不仅是一种知识体系,也是一种社会活动。因而对社会现象的研究要考量历史因素,在历史分析中建构社会科学的相关理论。这门学科的研究方法可以为政治学理论创新提供借鉴。政治学研究也可以运用历史社会学的视角,关注现代政治现象的历史来源和历史变迁,将现代政治现象与历史发展结合起来,在历史大背景下分析研究政治问题?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  从比较政治学中汲取智慧。理论不但来自历史研究,也来自现实研究。比较政治学可以通过对现实的比较研究来推动理论创新。比较政治研究首先应研究国家这个政治共同体是怎么来的;其次研究如何组织国家,即对不同国家的政治制度进行比较研究;再次研究国家是如何治理的,即对不同国家的治理方式进行比较研究。中国政治学应敞开胸怀、立足现实、放眼未来,以宽广研究视角、科学研究方法、多样研究思路推进政治学理论创新?/p><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);">  (作者为中国人民大学国际关系学院院长、教授)</p><br style="color: rgb(15, 15, 15); font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; font-size: 12px;"/><p style="margin-top: 25px; margin-bottom: 25px; padding: 0px; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 18px; line-height: 32.4px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; color: rgb(34, 34, 34);"><span id="paper_num">  ?人民日报 》( 2018?2?0?16 版)</span></p><div class="zdfy clearfix" style="margin: 0px auto 10px; text-align: center; font-stretch: normal; font-size: 12px; line-height: 24px; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei"; zoom: 1; 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